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Kaolin is an economic term used for almost white clay deposits and is industrially referred to as clay with a significant amount of kaolinite.These deposits often include kaolinite minerals or their derivatives. In the past, the term "porcelain soil" was used as a synonym for kaolin. The name Kaolin derived from the Chinese word "kaoling" means the white hill, from which the Kaolin soil was extracted. Kaolin is a mixture of clay minerals and its chemical formula is H4Al2Si2O9. Kaolinic regions include kaolinite, Dicit, Nacrit, and Halosite. The most abundant minerals in this group are kaolinite. All of these minerals are alumina-silicate minerals that crystallize in the monoclinic system or tricho-clinic. The most important characteristics of the Kaolin clay mineralogy are their softness and lack of abrasion. The durability of kaolin on the Mohr scale is about 2-5 / 2. This softness is an advantage in its industrial applications.Kaolin clays are mostly caused by alteration of aluminum silicate minerals in hot and humid areas. Feldspars are one of the most common mineral foundations of their origin. The plagioclase of feldspars (sodium or potassium) is usually deactivated at first. The potassium feldspar is slowly altered and produce mixed kaolins with fine grain sericite, ileate or hydromoscovite.Kaolin in white is the most widely used in porcelains and ceramic production.The United States, Russia, the Czech Republic and Brazil are the largest producers of kaolin.The important features of Kaolin, which has caused many uses, can be summarized as follows: 1- From a chemical point of view, a wide range of PH variations remains unchanged. 2-Having a white color that can be used as a usable colored material. 3- Having a very good coating. 4- Softness and non-abrasion 5-capability of low power heat and electrical conductivity 6-Cheap price According to its type, the kaolin stone is classified into two soft and hard bonding groups:Kaolin stone with soft bonding is mainly used in tile, porcelain and ceramic industries.Kaolin with hard bonding material is used in rubber and paper industries. Pigment:Kaolin, used as a pigment, is divided into a type of filler and a paper coating, which is based on its brightness, particle size and viscosity. Kaolin is a cheap, white filler that is in a wide range of neutral pH. Non-abrasive and small particle size, but the controllable , low thermal and electrical conductivity, and good brightness are applied in paper, plastic, paint, rubber, adhesives, putty and so on.
The highest consumption of kaolin is in the filler, special and white coating agent, extender, creates abrasion resistance, diluent, hardening in petrochemical industry, surface softener and as a catalyst in various industries, paper making, ceramic, Composite and Coloring, Refractory, Plastic, Rubber, Pharmaceutical, Fiberglass, Refractory, Building Materials, Insecticide, Absorber, Detergent, Food, Drug Preparation, Agricultural Industries, and Chemical Fertilizer. In Iran, this mineral is used in bricks, coverage of the furnaces , heat boilers and tiles.About 50% of kaolin is used in paper making as filler and coating (surface coating), 20% in ceramic and refractory industries, 10% in plastics as fillers and 20% in plastic paints. Compressive absorption ability and good coating and filling the uneven surfaces of paper from cellulose dough and creating transparency in paper is the benefits of using kaolin in the paper industry.The good price of Kaolin in recent years has made the consumer industries of this product interested in using kaolin.
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